Diabetes and Depression
Patients with diabetes face roughly double the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD), compared with people who do not have diabetes, according to a meta-analysis. The rate of depression in individuals with diabetes varied with the assessment tool but was 11% based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria current at the time of the study (1987, 1994).1
Comorbid depression in patients with diabetes has been associated with a nearly 1.5-fold higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death (hazard ratios [HR], 1.46 and 1.39, respectively), according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.2 Comorbid major depression in diabetes has been linked to a 36% increased rate of microvascular complications and a 24% increased rate of macrovascular events, compared with diabetes and no depression.3
A systematic review sheds light on the possible pathologic underpinnings of the links between depression and diabetes and the risk of complications. Depression was positively, significantly associated with three inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-1). Evidence is inconclusive as to whether depression or inflammation come first, or whether there is a bidirectional relationship.4
In addition, depression and diabetes are each independently associated with an elevated risk for dementia. People with both depression and diabetes face a higher risk of dementia than the sum of the risk associated with each condition separately, based on a national population-based cohort study of nearly 2.5 million people.5
Which comes first—diabetes or depression? An analysis of 6 years of claims data on 1 million beneficiaries from Taiwan National Health Insurance evaluated whether the risk of developing diabetes was higher in people with depression, and the converse. Findings supported a bidirectional relationship, with a stronger association between baseline depression and subsequent diabetes (HR, 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-2.27; compared with individuals without baseline depression) than between baseline diabetes and subsequent depression (HR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.77, compared with individuals without baseline diabetes).6
This supplement is intended for physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, CDEs, and other clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of metabolic and endocrine disorders.
DONNA L. JORNSAY, MS, CPNP, CDE, CDTC
CHRISTINE KESSLER, CNS, ANP, BC-ADM, CDTC, FAANP
DAVIDA F. KRUGER, MSN, APRN-BC, BC-ADM
ELLEN D. MANDEL, DMH, MPA, PA-C, RDN, CDE
LUCIA M. NOVAK, MSN, ANP-BC, BC-ADM, CDTC
JOYCE ROSS, MSN, ANP, CRNP, FPCNA, FNLA
SCOTT URQUHART, PA-C, DFAAPA
KIM ZUBER, PA-C
Method of Participation
Participants should read the activity information, review the activity in its entirety, and complete the online post-test and evaluation. Upon completing this activity as designed and achieving a passing score on the post-test, you will be directed to a webpage that will allow you to receive your certificate of credit via email or you may print it out at that time.
The online post-test and evaluation can be accessed at https://tinyurl.com/meds16suppl
Inquiries may be directed to Global Academy for Medical Education email@example.com or (973) 290-8225.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of the University of Cincinnati and Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC The University of Cincinnati is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The University of Cincinnati designates this Live Activity for a maximum of 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) is accredited with distinction as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation. This educational activity for 1.3 contact hours is provided by Postgraduate Institute for Medicine. Pharmacotherapy contact hours are .4 for Advance Practice Registered Nurses and will be designated on your certificate.
Primary care providers are often the first point of care for diabetes and kidney disease. The Metabolic & Endocrine Disease Summit 2016, a CME/CE conference, explored the latest advances in the management of these conditions. Obesity raises the risk of many other conditions. Providers would benefit from a discussion of how to address this frequently encountered problem in clinical practice. Lipoprotein (Lp) (a) is an inherited, independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New therapies show some promise for addressing this form of dyslipidemia. Diabetes raises the risk of major depressive disorder, and depression increases the risk of diabetic complications. Psychosocial intervention can improve glycemic control and symptoms of diabetes-related distress. Nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes but glycemic control, careful choice of medications, and regular monitoring can promote renoprotection.
Diabetes presents issues throughout a patient’s life; three touchpoints are the transition of a young adult from pediatrics to adult care, the detection and management of diabetes during pregnancy, and diabetes in the older adult. Anticipation of the relevant issues and implementation of a transition program can contribute to retaining young adults in care. Preconception counseling and early detection of diabetes can reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. Clinicians must be knowledgeable about how to balance the many complex issues to consider when establishing glycemic targets and selecting a treatment plan for an older adult with diabetes. At this writing, four new insulin-only preparations have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since February 2015. The ability to differentiate these options is important for clinicians.
After reading and studying this journal supplement, participants should be better able to:
- Differentiate the many insulin options available to treat people with diabetes, and their applications in clinical practice
- Display an understanding of the contributors to and consequences of obesity, and interventions to address unhealthy weight
- Evaluate the contribution of elevated Lp (a) to vascular risk and its influence on treatment
- Apply the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) glycemic goals and pharmacologic recommendations in the context of individual patient concerns and practical limitations.
- Incorporate consideration of renal function in monitoring, medication choice, and general management of diabetes
- Understand common errors in medication choice and dosing that are associated with kidney injury, and plan how to avoid them
- Demonstrate an understanding of the effect of depression—and its treatment—on diabetes
- List tools to assess and manage depression in patients with diabetes
- Identify risks of transition of young adults with diabetes from pediatric to adult services, and list elements of successful transition
- Demonstrate familiarity with assessment and treatment recommendations for older adults with diabetes
- Detect and manage pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus to reduce risk of complications for the mother and child during and after pregnancy
In accordance with the ACCME Standards for Commercial Support of CME, the speakers for this course have been asked to disclose to participants the existence of any financial interest and/or relationship(s) (e.g., paid speaker, employee, paid consultant on a board and/or committee for a commercial company) that would potentially affect the objectivity of his/her presentation or whose products or services may be mentioned during their presentation. The following disclosures were made:
Planning Committee Members
Susan P. Tyler No Relevant Relationships
Rick Ricer, MD No Relevant Relationships
Eileen McCaffrey No Relevant Relationships
Sylvia Reitman No Relevant Relationships
Shirley Jones No Relevant Relationships
The following PIM planners and managers, Judi Smelker-Mitchek, RN, BSN, Trace Hutchison, PharmD, Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD, CHCP, and Jan Schultz, RN, MSN, CHCP, hereby state that they or their spouse/ life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this activity of any amount during the past 12 months.
Donna L. Jornsay, MS, CPNP, CDE, CDTC, has indicated that she is a Consultant for Becton, Dickinson and Company and Eli Lilly; a Shareholder of Medtronic Diabetes; and is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Insulet.
Christine Kessler, CNS, ANP, BC-ADM, CDTC, FAANP, is a Consultant for AstraZeneca, Medtronic, and Novo Nordisk; and is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Novo Nordisk.
Davida F. Kruger, MSN, APRN-BC, BC-ADM, has indicated that she is on the Advisory Board of Abbott, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk; and Intarcia; on the Speaker’s Bureau for Abbott, Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk, Valeritas; has stock in Dexcom; and received grants/research support from Astra Zeneca, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Helmsley Foundation, Lexicon, and Novo Nordisk, and receives research support of 40% salary from NIH.
Ellen D. Mandel, DMH, MPA, PA-C, RDN, CDE, has nothing to disclose.
Lucia M. Novak, MSN, ANP-BC, BC-ADM, CDTC, has indicated that she is on the Speaker’s Bureau for AstraZeneca, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, and Novo Nordisk.
Joyce Ross, MSN, ANP, CLS, CRNP, FPCNA, FNLA, has indicated that she is a on the Advisory Board for Akcea Therapeutics, Kaneka America, Kastle Pharma; and on the Speaker’s Bureau for AbbVie, Amarin, Amgen, Kaneka America, KOWA, and Sanofi/Regeneron.
Scott Urquhart, PA-C, DFAAPA, has indicated that he is on the Advisory Board for AstraZeneca and Shire; a Consultant for Abbott and Acella Pharma; and on the Speaker’s Bureau for Abbott and AstraZeneca.
Kim Zuber, PA-C, has indicated that she is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Amgen and Janssen Pharmaceuticals.
All information provided by program participants is confidential and will not be shared with any other parties for any reason without permission.
Contact Information for Technical Questions
Please technical questions or concerns to Global Academy for Medical Education at 973-290-8225 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
The faculty acknowledge the editorial assistance of Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, and Eileen McCaffrey, medical writer, in the development of this supplement. It has been reviewed and approved by the faculty as well as the editors of Clinical Endocrinology News.
Neither the editors of Clinical Endocrinology News nor the Editorial Advisory Board nor the reporting staff contributed to its content. The opinions expressed are those of the faculty and do not necessarily reflect the views of the supporter or of the Publisher.
Copyright © 2017 by Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, Frontline Medical Communications Inc., and its Licensors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by any means, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Global Academy for Medical Education, LLC, will not assume responsibility for damages, loss, or claims of any kind arising from or related to the information contained in this publication, including any claims related to the products, drugs, or services mentioned This continuing medical education (CME) supplement was developed from faculty presentations at the Metabolic & Endocrine Disease Summit October 5 - 8, 2016.
1. Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(6):1069-1078.
2. van Dooren FE, Nefs G, Schram MT, Verhey FR, Denollet J, Pouwer F. Depression and risk of mortality in people with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57058.
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of diabetes: A prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(2):264-269.
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5. Katon W, Pedersen HS, Ribe AR, et al. Effect of depression and diabetes mellitus on the risk for dementia: A national population-based cohort study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(6):612-619.
6. Chen P-C, Chan Y-T, Chen H-F, Ko M-C, Li C-Y. Population-based cohort analyses of the bidirectional relationship between type 2 diabetes and depression. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(2):376-382.
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Validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care. 2003;41(11):1284-1292. 11. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9: Validity of a Brief
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13. Fisher L, Glasgow RE, Mullan JT, Skaff MM, Polonsky WH. Development of a brief diabetes distress screening instrument. Ann Fam Med. 2008;6(3):246- 252.
14. Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Earles J, et al. Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes: Development of the diabetes distress scale. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):626-631.
15. Harkness E, Macdonald W, Valderas J, Coventry P, Gask L, Bower P. Identifying psychosocial interventions that improve both physical and mental health in patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(4):926-930.
16. George CM, Brujin LL, Will K, Howard-Thompson A. Management of blood glucose with noninsulin therapies in type 2 diabetes. Am Fam Physician. 2015;92(1):27-34.
17. Fisher L, Hessler D, Glasgow RE, et al. REDEEM: A pragmatic trial to reduce diabetes distress. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(9):2551-2558.
18. Hermanns N, Schmitt A, Gahr A, et al. The effect of a Diabetes-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Program (DIAMOS) for patients with diabetes and subclinical depression: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(4):551-560.